The Muslim Period

The Muslim period was from 600 to 1600 A.D in the history of chemistry and is know as the period of alchemist. in the middle ages, chemistry was given a spurt of work. During the first few centuries of Hijra, the Muslim Scientist made rich contribution to the various branches of science, specially in the field of chemistry and introduced scientific methods and experimantations. the modern scientific knowledge is based on the contributions of these Muslim scholars.

The alchemists developed and used many laboratory equipment such as funnels, breakers, crucibles for melting and fusion, retorts for distillation, balances for weighing, etc. They discovered various acids, alcohols and medicines.

Jabir Ibne-Haiyan (721-803 A.D), generally known as the father of alchemy, invented experimental methods for the preparation of nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and white lead. He also developed methods for the extraction of metals from their ores and dying cloths.

Al-Razi (862-930 A.D) was a physician, alchemist and a philosopher. He was and expert surgeon and was the first to use opium as an anesthesia. He divided the substances in to living and non-living origins, which was later adopted by Berzellius, in 1806 to classify chemical compound on the basis of their orgins as organic and inorganic compounds Al-Razi prepared ethyl alcohol by the fermentation process.

Al-Beruni (973-1048 A.D) contributed a lot in physics, metaphysics, mathematics, geography and history. in the field of chemistry, he determined the densities of different substances.

Ibne-Sina (980-1037 A.D) was famous for his contribution in the field of medicines, medicinal chemistry, philosophy, mathematics and astronomy.

These Muslims alchemists were interested more in finding a way to prolong life and to convert baser metals like lead, copper in to gold. Although their efforts were futile but their researches led to the discoveries of many substances and laid the foundation of chemistry. By the late sixteenth like sulpheric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, silver nitrate, etc were discovered. Chemist of that period, however, devoted their energies mainly of the production of drugs for the use of medicines.

New Novel Recalls Romance at Roaring Twenties Dance Pavilion

In her latest novel, Lumina, North Carolina author Mary Flinn takes readers on a journey back in time. Lumina was a beautiful beach pavilion where dances were held every Saturday night for the first half of the twentieth century in Wilmington, North Carolina. Now Flinn returns us to the days of the Roaring Twenties when young ladies wore beaded skirts and young men covertly sipped whiskey when the dance matron wasn’t looking. It was an era of cultural change, marked by the first real sexual revolution, Prohibition, the introduction of jazz, and a time when music formed a bond for many whites and African-Americans.

Readers of Mary Flinn’s former novels will enjoy this chance to be enmeshed once again in her world. Although Lumina is her first historical romance, old favorite characters make their appearance in the form of Elle McLarin and some of her friends-Nate, Anne Borden Montgomery (AB), and Mr. May-from A Girl Like That. The story begins when Anne Borden finds a novel based on her mother’s diary and her uncle’s letters from the summer of 1928. The four friends begin a routine of sitting on Anne Borden’s porch and reading the novel out loud. As they do so, readers get alternate glimpses of the changes in the modern-day characters’ world while also hearing the endearing, but at times shocking, tale of Anne Borden’s uncle Kip and her mother Sylvie and the summer that changed their lives.

At the center of it all is Lumina, the magnificent dance pavilion built on Wilmington’s Wrightsville Beach. Known as the “Palace of Light,” it was the place to be on a Saturday night. As Kip describes it in the novel, “Lumina is the great equalizer for young people who are out for a bit of fun and to celebrate the happiness of youth. The best of the bands come there to play for the summer and thousands of people from all walks of life-tourists and locals, middle-class and aristocrats alike, arrive to dance the evening away on a Saturday night. Many a romance has been born at Lumina, I’ll tell you.” It is also a place for excitement and escapism. Kip says at one point in the novel, referring to the hours between eight and midnight, “We were perfect for four more hours.” It was a time when life seemed perfect.

It was also a time when you could meet anyone at the dances. Kip and Sylvie come from a middle class family. Their father owns a clothing store, but at Lumina they have a chance to rub elbows with the Carmichaels-brother and sister Clifton and Catherine-among the wealthiest people in North Carolina, friends of the Vanderbilts, and both attractive and charming, at least on the surface. Kip is instantly smitten with Catherine and begins a whirlwind romance with her. Clifton latches on to Sylvie, who can’t believe such a handsome gentleman is interested in her.

But both Clifton and Catherine have their demons, and as the novel progresses, secrets are revealed that threaten the young couples’ relationships.

Lumina is the perfect book to escape into, and yet it is serious fiction, as serious as anything Fitzgerald wrote. There’s a villain to rival Emily Bronte’s Heathcliff, and a sense of social injustice as strong as that of To Kill a Mockingbird. There are pleasant evenings spent on a porch that recall a past when neighbors actually took the time to speak to each other. There are fast cars and short skirts and a sense that the world is changing, no matter how much the characters wish they could freeze time.

Every page is vibrant with life, longing, and romance, and Flinn knows how to pace the story so readers can come up for air when things get too intense, while constantly keeping us in suspense.

My favorite section was near the end when The Shag-the great dance of the age-is introduced following the Feast of Pirates. It’s a perfect build-up to the climax that effortlessly blends history and fiction. If you’re not familiar with the Shag, it may not sound like a big deal, but when you read the novel, you’ll get goosebumps during these scenes. Flinn knows how to pace her story so that readers find themselves helplessly caught up in the excitement as if riding a rollercoaster. Time can’t be frozen, but these scenes in the novel become so intense they are permanently etched in the reader’s memory as golden moments to remember. Few novelists have this skill, and while Flinn makes it all look effortless, it is the result of years of mastering her craft.

Hollywood is dying to tell stories like this one. The sparkling lights of Lumina, the music wafting out onto the beach, the dazzling dresses, the smell of bathtub gin, the Southern charm, and the family secrets that won’t lay dying-they are all here, making The Great Gatsby look like child’s play.

If you want a magical, romantic, reading experience, Lumina will enthrall you.

Have You Ever Given a Thought To Them?

You had gone to one of your friend’s house for a dinner party when he got promotion to a higher designation at work. From an early age, you had seen him being very active in Creativity and education field. In fact, it was he who inspired you to do something which entire world could be proud of doing.

It was during this dinner table conversation that you had unwittingly asked him how you could also join this type of a field of work. Though your friend had tried his level best to explain you certain aspects of the whole thing, you were not satisfied by whatever replies you got from him. That one incident had such an impact on your minds that you had got determined to go bottom of this topic and settle down all confusions finally. However, you were really apprehensive how to go about collecting more information on this subject. You had already tasted failure by asking your friends who could not be of much use to you. In addition, you were in no mood to allow history to repeat itself.

If that is the case with you and you are desperate to know about say Creative curriculum planning, you shall be more than happy to read this piece of information that you are presently reading. This is one place, where you will find answers to most of your queries. There are many instances which have already taken place in past where readers have been immensely benefited after they had read this article. Therefore, if you want to join the list of such successful persons, you will just need to ensure you have read this entire article. Because, it is widely said, only then can you think of getting the kind and amount of information that you were looking for. Instead of relying on half-baked truths and hearsay, it will be better for you if you can make sure that you have read this article completely. Yes, do not be surprised to see most of these steps being so very simple that you will not even require going out of your home.

For instance, if your requirement is to know more about say, Cross-curricular learning, you will be immensely benefited from a newspaper. Yes, it is true that you have kept these newspapers for some other reason. Your ultimate aim is to go through those numerous events that are taking place around the globe. You can still keep doing that and no one is asking you to stop doing that. After you have finished reading your favorite sections, just identify those adverts that contain certain crucial details like say website address. Once you have this vital information with you, you will just need to visit the website and collect whatever information you think is very necessary for your purpose. This will save your crucial time and you will be gainer all the way.